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Identity : : contemporary identity politics and the struggle for recognition

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「對於民主的可怕威脅之強而有力的分析。」─柯克斯評論身份的認知,對於現代世界政治而言相當重要,它可說是現代政治架構中決定性的一部分,它影響了每個族群的核心,左右所有人面對世界的決策。現今社會上對於民主的認知,大多都受到許多不同層面的狹隘因素影響,例如:宗教、種族、國家、性別等,而改變了原有的意義,也造就了許多問題,反對移民的民粹主義、政治化的伊斯蘭教、白人優越主義等問題都因此而起。因此暢銷作家法蘭西斯‧福山認為,要是人類無法清楚地定義自己的存在,某天將會因為將自己分門別類引起不必要的糾紛,而某天人類也將會被這些糾紛給毀滅。法蘭西斯‧福山是日裔美籍學者,是美國知名的社會學專家,對於社會的分析經常受到大眾熱烈討論,曾出版《政治的起源》、《強國論》、《信任》等暢銷作品。In 2014, Francis Fukuyama wrote that American and global institutions were in a state of decay, as the state was captured by powerful interest groups. Two years later, his predictions were borne out by the rise to power of a series of political outsiders whose economic nationalism and authoritarian tendencies threatens to destabilise the entire international order. These populist nationalists seek direct charismatic connection to 'the people', who are usually defined in narrow identity terms that offer an irresistible call to an in-group and exclude large parts of the population as a whole.The demands of identity direct much of what is going on in world politics today. The universal recognition on which liberal democracy is based has been increasingly challenged by restrictive forms of recognition based on nation, religion, sect, race, ethnicity, or gender, which have resulted in anti-immigrant populism, the upsurge of politicised Islam, the fractious environment of many college campuses, and the hideous emergence of white nationalism.Identity is an urgent and necessary book: a sharp warning that unless we forge a universal understanding of human dignity, we will doom ourselves to continual conflict.


Francis FukuyamaFrancis Fukuyama is a Professor at Stanford University's Institute for International Studies. He has previously taught at Johns Hopkins University and at George Mason University. Fukuyama was a researcher at the RAND Corporation and served as the Deputy Director for the State Department's Policy planning staff. He is the author of Political Order and Political Decay, The Origins of Political Order, The Great Disruption, Our Posthuman Future and State Building. He lives with his wife in California.

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